Golf inside the perimeter is miserable unless you play at a private course. As far as the private clubs go, some people may not know about the Crabapple Course or Settindown Creek (must plays if you can work your way on). Big Canoe is one of the coolest courses I’ve played, a lot further and private, but worth mentioning.
Outside the perimeter there are a ton of nice public courses depending on how far you want to drive. IMO The University of Georgia Course is one of the best public courses in Georgia with slippery greens when they get them rolling. Cobble Stone is a fun course with great views of Lake Acworth. I would definitely consider The Frog a hidden gem. St Marlo is closer than the other ones i just mentioned (near Atlanta Athletic Club), has good rates on golf now and is an awesome semiprivate course with a lot of elevation change. Chateau Elan has a few courses that are in good condition. They are not my favorite but you can usually find surprisingly good rates and make a day out of the winery/pub.
I’d love some other suggestions based on my list.